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古樹防腐補洞技術

古樹的防腐和補洞是古樹保護的一項技術措施,通過防腐、補洞,促進古樹傷口癒合,改善樹貌,延長古樹壽命。
古樹樹洞的形成,多是由於古樹的韌皮部或木質部受到人為創傷後未及時進行防腐處理,再受到雨水侵蝕引起的真菌類危害,久而久之,形成樹洞。

根據樹洞的著生位置及程度可將樹洞分為5類。洞口朝上或洞口與主杆的夾角大於120度的為朝天洞;有兩個以上洞口,洞內木質部腐爛相通,只剩下韌皮部及少量木質部的為通幹洞(或對穿洞);洞口面與地面基本垂直,多見於主幹上的為側洞;樹洞的位置處於主幹或分枝的分叉點的為夾縫洞;樹洞靠近地面近根部的為落地洞。

在對樹洞進行處理時,既有共性,又有特殊性,下麵先介紹共性:

1、樹洞內清腐
用合適的工具,如榔頭、刮刀、鑿子、刷子、鏟刀等對腐爛的木質部進行清除,要求盡可能的將樹洞內所有腐爛的和已變色的木質部清除,至硬木即可,注意不要傷及健康的木質部。
2、樹洞內除蟲、消毒

除蟲藥劑用滅蛀磷原液,用針筒或毛筆塗擦。用除蟲藥後一天方可用消毒劑,消毒劑主要用硫酸銅,比例為1:30-50倍,用小型瓶式噴霧器即可。也可使用高錳酸鉀消毒。

3、應用填充材料

補洞的關鍵是填充材料的選擇,一般情況下,選擇的材料需具備以下幾個條件:(1)PH值最好為中性;(2)其收縮性與木材的大致相等;(3)與木質部的親和力要強。現常用的填充材料有木炭、玻璃纖維、聚氨酯發泡劑或尿醛樹脂發泡劑等。

4、刮削洞口樹皮
刮削腐爛樹皮至鮮活部位。癒合狀洞口,不宜多作刮削。

此外,不同類型的樹洞在處理時還有其特性:

1、朝天洞
修補面必須低於周邊樹皮,中間略高,注意修補面不能積水。
2、通幹洞
一般只作防腐處理,盡可能做得徹底,樹洞內時有不定根,保護好不定根,並合理設置好導流管,使流水更順暢的排出。
3、側洞
不腐爛、不積水的側洞通常只進行防腐。
4、夾縫洞
引流不暢的都要補。
5、落地洞
落地洞分對穿與非對穿,通常非對穿洞要補,對穿形式的落地洞,一般不補,只作防腐處理。落地洞的處理以不傷害根系為原則。
總之,在操作前要分析蛻皮形成和樹洞產生的原因,是蟲害危害造成的,還是外力碰傷所至,在調查研究取得真實的資料後,方可制定科學合理的防腐和補洞技術方案,在得到有關部門的認可後方可實施。

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